Using Twitter API v1.1 with .net (oAuth) – no 3rd party libraries

Due March 2013 Twitter API V1.0 get deprecated and all requested to use V 1.1 instead. I had a Twitter web part created for a public facing site and I had to update it to this new API version. Most of the articles i read including Twitter it says its pretty straight forward. But I had to go through a very hard time figuring out how to connect to API using oAuth 1.0 and how to pass additional parameters. There are misty hidden behind the API calls and signing signatures that not described in detail in any documentation.This attempt is to clarify the procedure as much as possible and give you a working version of a implementation.
Code sample given below is generalized and you can pass any twitter parameter related to user time line related query. Just add the parameters to additional_parameters section.

If you had already started trying to implement this you may have received some common error message while testing it.

The remote server returned an error: (400) Bad Request.

The remote server returned an error: (401) Unauthorized.

Some Key reasons to get those error messages is not relevant directly to the error message it self.

1) Base string used to create signature should have there parameters alphabetically sorted. (thank you Priyantha Sampath Lankapura for pointing this out to me Smile )

2) What ever the parameters included in the signature must present in the request url sent to twitter. You cannot change a single parameter value. Authenticity of the request is validated through the URL and the signature sent in the header.

(The complete list of error messages can be found here.

Please note all the tokens provided below are incorrect and you need to replace them with your own application tokens you created to get this sample work. If you don’t have these token already created you can do so from twitter developer site.


Code Sample
  2.          try
  3.             {
  4.                 CultureInfo _culture = new CultureInfo(“en-US”);
  5.                 #region oAuth realted parameters
  6.                 var oauth_token = “176122-SQA1amiFz1Q1cX7ZRRzyJsbyWfnwb5zQtOsZY”;
  7.                 var oauth_token_secret = “2ZhjEPv4bP5ojpj6hPSLFEmW2nAsYzIrEkhL5YJs”;
  8.                 var oauth_consumer_key = “2rYXfK6o76tz2uwIUJ9A”;
  9.                 var oauth_consumer_secret = “38TDM2qD1Fi5M51yFxljAC9dX5TQD1uusAyUEVw”;
  10.                 var resource_url =”;
  11.                 var oauth_version = “1.0”;
  12.                 var oauth_signature_method = “HMAC-SHA1”;
  13.                 var oauth_nonce = Convert.ToBase64String(new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(DateTime.Now.Ticks.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture)));
  14.                 var timeSpan = DateTime.UtcNow – new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, DateTimeKind.Utc);
  15.                 var oauth_timestamp = Convert.ToInt64(timeSpan.TotalSeconds).ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
  16.                 SortedDictionary<string, string> oauth_parameters = new SortedDictionary<string, string>();
  17.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_consumer_key”, oauth_consumer_key);
  18.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_nonce”, oauth_nonce);
  19.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_signature_method”, oauth_signature_method);
  20.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_timestamp”, oauth_timestamp);
  21.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_token”, oauth_token);
  22.                 oauth_parameters.Add(“oauth_version”, oauth_version);
  23.                 #endregion oAuth realted parameters
  24.                 #region Twitter time line related additonal parameters
  25.                 // Some variable parameters
  26.                 var screen_name = “twitterapi”;
  27.                 int count = 5;
  28.                 SortedDictionary<string, string> additional_parameters = new SortedDictionary<string, string>();
  29.                 additional_parameters.Add(“screen_name”, Uri.EscapeDataString(screen_name));
  30.                 additional_parameters.Add(“count”, count.ToString());
  31.                 additional_parameters.Add(“exclude_replies”, “false”);
  32.                 additional_parameters.Add(“include_rts”, “true”);
  33.                 additional_parameters.Add(“trim_user”, “true”);
  34.                 additional_parameters.Add(“contributor_details”, “true”);
  35.                 #endregion Twitter time line related additonal parameters
  36.                 #region Merge all parameters together and sort them
  37.                 SortedDictionary<string, string> mergerd_parameters = new SortedDictionary<string, string>();
  38.                 foreach (var item in oauth_parameters)
  39.                 {
  40.                     mergerd_parameters.Add(item.Key, item.Value);
  41.                 }
  42.                 foreach (var item in additional_parameters)
  43.                 {
  44.                     mergerd_parameters.Add(item.Key, item.Value);
  45.                 }
  46.                 #endregion Merge all parameters together and sort them
  47.                 #region Generate the base string for sigining
  48.                 var base_string = string.Empty;
  49.                 foreach (var item in mergerd_parameters)
  50.                 {
  51.                     base_string += item.Key + “=” + item.Value + “&”;
  52.                 }
  53.                 base_string = base_string.Remove(base_string.Length – 1);
  54.                 base_string = string.Concat(“GET&”, Uri.EscapeDataString(resource_url),
  55.                               “&”, Uri.EscapeDataString(base_string));
  56.                 #endregion Generate the base string for sigining
  57.                 #region Generate signature
  58.                 //Encrypt data
  59.                 var composite_key = string.Concat(Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_consumer_secret),
  60.                             “&”, Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_token_secret));
  61.                 string oauth_signature;
  62.                 using (HMACSHA1 hasher = new HMACSHA1(ASCIIEncoding.ASCII.GetBytes(composite_key)))
  63.                 {
  64.                     oauth_signature = Convert.ToBase64String(hasher.ComputeHash(ASCIIEncoding.ASCII.GetBytes(base_string)));
  65.                 }
  66.                 #endregion Generate signature
  67.                 #region Prepare authentication header and the request url
  68.                 var header_format = “OAuth oauth_nonce=\”{0}\”, oauth_signature_method=\”{1}\”, “ +
  69.                        “oauth_timestamp=\”{2}\”, oauth_consumer_key=\”{3}\”, “ +
  70.                        “oauth_token=\”{4}\”, oauth_signature=\”{5}\”, “ +
  71.                        “oauth_version=\”{6}\””;
  72.                 var auth_header = string.Format(_culture, header_format,
  73.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_nonce),
  74.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_signature_method),
  75.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_timestamp),
  76.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_consumer_key),
  77.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_token),
  78.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_signature),
  79.                                         Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_version)
  80.                                 );
  81.                 //Disable exprect 100 continue header
  82.                 ServicePointManager.Expect100Continue = false;
  83.                 string resource_url_with_param = resource_url + “?”;
  84.                 foreach (var item in additional_parameters)
  85.                 {
  86.                     resource_url_with_param += item.Key + “=” + item.Value + “&”;
  87.                 }
  88.                 resource_url_with_param = resource_url_with_param.Remove(resource_url_with_param.Length – 1);
  89.                 #endregion Prepare authentication header and the request url
  90.                 #region Request Twitter API and process results
  91.                 HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(resource_url_with_param);
  92.                 request.Headers.Add(“Authorization”, auth_header);
  93.                 request.Method = “GET”;
  94.                 request.ContentType = “application/x-www-form-urlencoded”;
  95.                 WebResponse response = request.GetResponse();
  96.                 string response_data;
  97.                 using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(response.GetResponseStream()))
  98.                 {
  99.                     response_data = reader.ReadToEnd();
  100.                     DataContractJsonSerializer ser = new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(List<Tweet>));
  101.                     using (MemoryStream ms = new MemoryStream(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(response_data)))
  102.                     {
  103.                         List<Tweet> tweet_collection = ser.ReadObject(ms) as List<Tweet>;
  104.                         foreach (var tweet in tweet_collection)
  105.                         {
  106.                                 //Do something here
  107.                         }
  108.                     }
  109.                 }
  110.                 #endregion Request Twitter API and process results
  111.             }
  112.             catch (Exception ex)
  113.             {
  114.                 throw ex;
  115.             }

Twitter Entity
  1.         [DataContract]
  2.         public class Tweet
  3.         {
  4.             [DataMember]
  5.             public long id;
  6.             [DataMember]
  7.             public string id_str;
  8.             [DataMember]
  9.             public string text;
  10.             [DataMember]
  11.             public string created_at;
  12.         }

Note on the above sample:

oauth_parameters are the must provide parameters to sign the signature and connect to the API.
additional_parameters section includes all the parameters you need to customize the result set you gonna retrieve.

I have used a custom entity named Twitter to store the data retrieved from the json result object. This entity does not include all the result data. So you can add more fields as defined in the twitter entity documentation to read those values to the entity.

Happy Coding! Smile


Using Bing Map API V7

This article is intended to who is new to Bing map API. This article will guide to create a simple Bing map with basic configurations that we will be using most of the time.

First of all if you need to get a Bing Map API key for your development tasks you can do it very simply and for free using the Microsoft Bing Map Portal.

But most of operations and developments can be done even without using a valid Bing Map API key. But the map will have a huge water mark in the center of the map and it will make your map unusable. So its worth for you to get the free API key. Winking smile

The complete source can be found here and the explanations goes under the code sample.

  1.     <style>
  2.         #bingMapPlaceHolder
  3.         {
  4.             width: 600px;
  5.             height: 600px;
  6.             position: relative;
  7.             float: left;
  8.         }
  9.     </style>
  10.     <script type=”text/javascript” src=”/Style Library/Scripts/jquery-1.9.1.js”></script>
  11.     <script type=”text/javascript” src=”″></script>
  12.     <script language=”javascript” type=”text/javascript”>
  13.         var map;
  14.         var bingcredentials = ‘YourBingMapKey’;
  15.         var mapCenterLatitude = ‘6.931944’;
  16.         var mapCenterLongitude = ‘79.847778’;
  17.         var mapZoomLevel = ‘10.8’;
  18.         // Initialize the Map instance
  19.         function InitializeMap() {
  20.             try {
  21.                 Microsoft.Maps.loadModule(‘Microsoft.Maps.Overlays.Style’,
  22.             {
  23.                 callback: function () {
  24.                     map = new Microsoft.Maps.Map(document.getElementById(“bingMapPlaceHolder”),
  25.                     {
  26.                         credentials: bingcredentials,
  27.                         mapTypeId: Microsoft.Maps.MapTypeId.road,
  28.                         enableSearchLogo: false,
  29.                         showCopyright: false,
  30.                         showLogo: false,
  31.                         showDashboard: true,
  32.                         customizeOverlays: true,
  33.                         center: new Microsoft.Maps.Location(eval(mapCenterLatitude), eval(mapCenterLongitude)),
  34.                         zoom: eval(mapZoomLevel)
  35.                     });
  36.                 }
  37.             });
  38.             } catch (e) {
  39.                 alert(e);
  40.             }
  41.         }
  42.         $(document).ready(function () {
  43.             InitializeMap();
  44.         });
  45.     </script>
  46.     <div id=”bingMapPlaceHolder”>
  47.     </div>

We do not need jQuery for this example. But in many scenarios our Bing Map will be hosted as a control inside SharePoint web part, control, or in a PHP page etc. So to increase the scalability and usability I have used jQuery document ready function to initialize and display the map.

First of all you need to define a placeholder element to display the map. In this example I have defined a div with the ID bingMapPlaceHolder for this purpose. Make sure you set the width and height of this placeholder. I have define some style for this top of the example.

In the script section you can see few variable. map is to hold the Bing map and the rest is supporting variables. As I mentioned earlier Bing map requires a valid API key to function properly and completely as expected. so the bingcredentials variable will hold my Bing map API key.

When we open up the map it will zoom to the entire world. So if we want to zoom and center the map to a specific point (city, state, country, address, geo codes etc.) we need to pass them when we initialize the map. So for that purpose I have few variables that will define the center location latitude, longitude and the default zoom level.

Then I have written a function InitializeMap to define map control and to set the necessary options. Line 29 to 40 does this set up. When initializing the map we will be specifying the html element we going to load the map.

Other options are explained below:

mapTypeId: Microsoft.Maps.MapTypeId.road
Bing map has different views such as Road view, Birds Eye, Areal etc. So this is to specify that I need the Road view.

enableSearchLogo: false
By Default a Bing Search option will be there inside the map it self. So I want to get rid of this.

showCopyright: false
By default there will be a copyright text at the bottom of the map. This option let you show hide it.

showLogo: false
If you don’t wont to show the Bing logo in your map you can set this value to false.

showDashboard: true
Dashboard is the place that will give you the control over map. View selection, Zoom In, Zoom out etc. are specified in the dashboard.

All the options you can apply to the map is documented in msdn can be found here.

If you inspect line 25 (Microsoft.Maps.loadModule(‘Microsoft.Maps.Overlays.Style’) you can see I have loaded a specific module. There are bunch of different modules provided and catering different needs. For example for traffic, clustering the pin locations, routing and directions etc.

In this example I have loaded the ‘Microsoft.Maps.Overlays.Style’ module because I want Microsoft Bing Map like navigation options in my dashboard. By default it gives a different look and feel. Likewise by loading different modules you can add more functionality and also change the look and feel too.

You can get an idea on default modules and custom modules by referencing these articles.

At at the bottom of the page, I have called the initialize method inside my document ready jQuery function. So this will load all the necessary stuff and will display the map.

If you want try out different simple and advanced options of Bing map you can simple navigate to below link of Bing Map SDK and try them out. This is the best place to see the capabilities of the map API.

That’s it about loading a simple Bing map. Probably you will need to pin and show locations and search locations etc. Article explaining on those topics are to be followed. Smile